Tuesday, November 30, 2010

בורגזה or בןרגזה ?? Cracking the Boanerges Code. The mystery of Mark 3:17

Borghese : Established 1266
Where did the "Borghese" Family name come from ?

The House of Borghese originated with Tiezzo da Monticiano, a 13th century wool merchant in Siena, whose nephew Borghese gave his name to the family......

בורגזה Borghese Bet Vav Resh Gimel Zayin He (Hebrew letters)
בןרגזה (angry) Sons of Irritated (angry) or Boanerges from the Peshitta Aramaic. Bet Nun Resh Gimel Zayin He (Plural)

Boanerges (Βοανηργες)

Mark 3:17

And James, the son of Zebedee, and John, the brother of James, and he gave them the name Boanerges, which is Sons of Thunder.

Jesus surnames the brothers James and John to reflect their impetuosity. The Greek rendition of their name is Βοανηργες (Boanērges).

There has been much speculation about this name. Given the Greek translation that comes with it ('Sons of Thunder'), it seems that the first element of the name is 'bnê', 'sons of' (the plural of 'bar'), Aramaic (בני). This is represented by βοανη (boanê), giving two vowels in the first syllable where one would be sufficient. It could be inferred from this that the Greek transliteration may not be a good one. The second part of the name is often reckoned to be 'rğaš' ('tumult') Aramaic (רגיש), or 'rğaz' ('anger') Aramaic (רגז). Maurice Casey, however, argues that it is a simple misreading of the word for thunder, 'r`am' (due to the similarity of s to the final m). This is supported by only one Syriac translation of the name as 'bnay ra`mâ'. The Peshitta reads "bnay rğešy," which would fit with a later composition for it, based on a Byzantine reading of the original Greek.
Wikipedia - Boanerges

Singular is bar rğešy = בורגזה = Borghese

בו (where)
רגזה (irritated)
בןרגזה (angry) Sons of Irritated
Bet Nun Resh Gimel Zayin He
This is how you spell "Borghese" in Hebrew

בורגזה Borghese Bet Vav Resh Gimel Zayin He

If the Vav is changed to the plural Nun ....

בןרגזה (angry) Sons of Irritated = B'nei-rges from the Peshitta Aramaic. Bet Nun Resh Gimel Zayin He

Was the letter Vav mistakenly copied as a Nun ?

Is there a hidden mystery in the Letter Vav ????

Monday, October 18, 2010

Varghese, Borghese & St George the Dragon Slayer

I was reading recently that the Indian Family name "Varghese" comes from the name "George" - which means Farmer or earth worker. (similar to Gaia) The Hebrew word for farmer is Ikar, but the word for "grain" is Gera (perhaps the source for the name George)

If George comes from St George - Capadocean Dragon Slayer, perhaps that is the reason the Borghese Crest shows the Dragon below the Eagle.

If the Borghese are an ancient family of unknown origin (prior to 1300 in Siena) perhaps the source is the word "Farmer" - the Family in Siena were known as Wool Merchants or Farmers. Where did they come from ?

In Aramaic the letter B is also pronounced "V" so maybe the Borghese of Siena come from the Varghese of India. Or vice-versa. How did the Varghese arrive in India ?

The Varghese probably arrived in Kerela from Palestine - they were also called Nazarines (Nasrani) - the 1st Jewish Christians, who were taught by St Thomas.


St John and St James were called Boanerges (Mar 3:17) ...which has always been translated as "Sons of Thunder".... the singular is Bar-rgesy. Which could also mean Son of Jessie. (Bar-yshay)


Saturday, October 16, 2010

Borghese as "Son of Thunder"

From the Syriac Peshitta "Son of Thunder" reads "bar-rğešy"
The plural "Sons of Thunder" is read as Boanerges (bnê'-rğaš) (Βοανηργες)

Mark 3:17
And James, the son of Zebedee, and John, the brother of James, and he gave them the name Boanerges, which is Sons of Thunder.

Jesus surnames the brothers James and John to reflect their impetuosity. The Greek rendition of their name is Βοανηργες (Boanērges).
There has been much speculation about this name. Given the Greek translation that comes with it ('Sons of Thunder'), it seems that the first element of the name is 'bnê', 'sons of' (the plural of 'bar'), Aramaic (בני). This is represented by βοανη (boanê), giving two vowels in the first syllable where one would be sufficient. It could be inferred from this that the Greek transliteration may not be a good one. The second part of the name is often reckoned to be 'rğaš' ('tumult') Aramaic (רגיש), or 'rğaz' ('anger') Aramaic (רגז). Maurice Casey, however, argues that it is a simple misreading of the word for thunder, 'r`am' (due to the similarity of s to the final m). This is supported by one Syriac translation of the name as 'bnay ra`mâ'. The Peshitta reads "bnay rğešy," which would fit with a later composition for it, based on a Byzantine reading of the original Greek.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

Borgese o Burgisi and Borgia Family Crests

Borgia o Boreas
Noble and ancient Family.
Weapon: truncated: the 1st blue ox gold, passing, topped by a
star of six rays, two kites, all the same, in the 2nd
blue, three gold bands. Borgia, Borgese, Burgisi

Borgese o Burgisi
Coat of Arms from Southern taly.
Borgese o Burgisi.
Nella Mastra Nobile del Mollica (lista XVIII, anno 1604) vediamo annotato un messer Antonio Burgisi.
Arma: d’argento, al leone di nero.

Monday, April 19, 2010

Borghese, Bar-ghese, Bar-jesse

Bar-ghesi with"gh" spoken as "Iysh" or ee-shah'-ee .... Bar-Iyshay translated from the Aramaic as "Son of Jesse"

The House of Bar-ee-shah-ee (Borghese)or Borgh-esse House of the Essenes. House (followers) of "Esse"

Strongs #03448: yvy Yishay by Aramaic yvya 'Iyshay
Jesse = "I possess"
1) son of Boaz and the father of king David
3448 Yishay yee-shah'-ee
by Aramaic Iyshay {ee-shah'-ee}; from the same as 3426;
extant; Jishai, David's father:-Jesse.
see HEBREW for 03426

Strongs #2421: Iessai Iessai
Jesse = "wealthy"
1) the father of David the king
2421 Iessai es-es-sah'-ee
of Hebrew origin (3448); Jessae (i.e. Jishai), an Israelite:-Jesse.
see HEBREW for 03448

Jesse [EBD]
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam. 22:3).

(wealthy), the father of David, was the son of Obed, who again was the fruit of the union of Boaz and the Moabitess Ruth. His great-grandmother was Rahab the Canaanite, of Jericho. (Matthew 1:5) Jesse?s genealogy is twice given in full in the Old Testament, viz., (Ruth 4:18-22) and 1Chr 2:5-12 He is commonly designated as "Jesse the Bethlehemite," (1 Samuel 16:1,18; 17:58) but his full title is "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah." ch. (1 Samuel 17:12) He is an "old man" when we first meet with him, (1 Samuel 17:12) with eight sons, ch. (1 Samuel 16:10; 17:12) residing at Bethlehem. ch (1 Samuel 16:4,5) Jesse?s wealth seems to have consisted of a flock of sheep and goats, (Borghese of Siena are recordes as wealthy Wool Merchants) which were under the care of David. ch. (1 Samuel 16:11; 17:34,35) After David?s rupture with Saul he took his father and his mother into the country of Moab and deposited them with the king, and there they disappear from our view in the records of Scripture. (B.C. 1068-61.) Who the wife of Jesse was we are not told.

JESSE - jes'-e (yishay, meaning doubtful; according to Gesenius it = "wealthy"; Olshausen, Gram., sections 277 f, conjectures yesh yah, "Yahweh exists"; Wellhausen (1 Sam 14:49) explains it as 'abhishay (see ABISHAI); Iessai; Ruth 4:17,22; 1 Sam 16; 17; 20; 22; 25:10; 2 Sam 20:1; 23:1; 1 Ki 12:16; 1 Ch 10:14; 12:18; Ps 72:20; Isa 11:1,10 ( = Rom 15:12)); Mt 1:5,6; Acts 13:22): Son of Obed, grandson of Boaz, and father of King David. The grouping of the references to Jesse in 1 Sam is bound up with that of the grouping of the whole narrative of David and Saul. See SAMUEL, BOOKS OF. There seem to be three main veins in the narrative, so far as Jesse is concerned.
(1) In 1 Sam 16:1-13, where Jesse is called the Bethlehemite. Samuel is sent to seek among Jesse's sons successor to Saul.

Both Samuel and Jesse fail to discern at first Yahweh's choice, Samuel thinking that it would be the eldest son (1 Sam 16:6), while Jesse had not thought it worth while to call the youngest to the feast (1 Sam 16:11).

(2) (a) In 1 Sam 16:14-23, Saul is mentally disturbed, and is advised to get a harpist. David "the son of Jesse the Bethlehemite" is recommended by a courtier, and Saul sends to Jesse for David.

"And Jesse took ten loaves (so emend and translate, and not as the Revised Version (British and American), "an ass laden with bread"), and a (skin) bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them" to Saul as a present with David, who becomes a courtier of Saul's with his father's consent.

(b) The next mention of Jesse is in three contemptuous references by Saul to David as "the son of Jesse" in 1 Sam 20:27,30,31, part of the quarrel-scene between Saul and Jonathan. (But it is not quite certain if 1 Sam 20 belongs to the same source as 16:14-23.) In answer to the first reference, Jonathan calls his friend "David," and Saul repeats the phrase "the son of Jesse," abusing Jonathan personally (1 Sam 20:30, where the meaning is uncertain). The reference to David as "the son of Jesse" here and in the following verse is contemptuous, not because of any reproach that might attach itself to Jesse, but, as Budde remarks, because "an upstart is always contemptuously referred to under his father's name" in courts and society. History repeats itself!

(c) Further references of a like kind are in the passage, 1 Sam 22:6-23, namely, in 22:7,8,13 by Saul, and repeated by Doeg in 22:9.

(d) The final one of this group is in 1 Sam 25:10, where Nabal sarcastically asks "Who is David ? and who is the son of Jesse?"

(3) The parts of 1 Sam 17 through 18:5 which are omitted by Septuagint B, i.e. 17:12-31,41,48b,50,55 through 18:6a. Here Jesse is mentioned as "an Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah" (17:12, not "that" Ephrathite, which is a grammatically impossible translation of the Massoretic Text), Ephrath or Ephrathah being another name for Bethlehem, or rather for the district. He is further said to have eight sons (17:12), of whom the three eldest had followed Saul to the war (17:13).

Jesse sends David, the shepherd, to his brothers with provisions (1 Sam 17:17). Afterward David, on being brought to Saul and asked who he is, answers, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite" (1 Sam 17:58). Jesse is also described (1 Sam 17:12) as being "in the days of Saul an old man, advanced in years" (so emend and translate, not as the Revised Version (British and American), "stricken in years among men"). The mention of his having 8 sons in 1 Sam 17:12 is not in agreement with 1 Ch 2:13-15, which gives only 7 sons with two sisters, but where Syriac gives 8, adding, from 27:18, Elihu which Massoretic Text has there probably by corruption (Curtis, Chronicles, 88). 1 Sam 16:10 should be translated" and Jesse made his 7 sons to pass before Samuel" (not as the Revised Version (British and American), the King James Version, "seven of his sons"). Budde (Kurz. Hand-Komm., "Samuel," 114) holds 1 Sam 16:1-13 to be a late Midrash, and (ibid., 123 f) omits (a) "that" in 17:12; (b) also "and he had 8 sons" as due to a wrong inference from 16:10; (c) the names of the 3 eldest in 17:13; (d) 17:14b; he then changes 17:15a, and reads thus: (12) "Now David was the son of an Ephrathite of Bethlehem-Judah, whose name was Jesse who was .... (years) old at the time of Saul. (13) And the 3 eldest sons of Jesse had marched with Saul to the war, (14) and David was the youngest, (15) and David had remained to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem. (16) Now the Philistines came," etc.

According to all these narratives in 1 Samuel, whether all 3 be entirely independent of one another or not, Jesse had land in Bethlehem, probably outside the town wall, like Boaz (see BOAZ) his grandfather (Ruth 4:17). In 1 Sam 22:3,1 David entrusts his father and mother to the care of the king of Moab, but from 20:29 some have inferred that Jesse was dead (although most critics assign 22:3 at any rate to the same stratum as chapter 20).

Jonathan tells Saul that David wanted to attend a family sacrificial feast at Bethlehem (1 Sam 20:29). Massoretic Text reads, "And he, my brother, has commanded me," whereas we should probably read with Septuagint, "and my brethren have commanded me," i.e. the members of the clan, as we have farther on in the verse, "Let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren." As to Jesse's daughters, see ABIGAIL; NAHASH.

(4) Of the other references to Jesse, the most noteworthy is that in Isa 11:1: "There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit," i.e. out of Jesse's roots (compare Rev 5:5). "Why Jesse and not David?" asks Duhm; and he answers, "Because the Messiah will be a second David, rather than a descendant of David." Marti explains it to mean that he will be, not from David, but from a collateral line of descent. Duhm's explanation suggests a parallelism between David and Christ, of whom the former may be treated as a type similar to Aaron and Melchizedek in He. Saul might pour contempt upon "the son of Jesse," but Isaiah has given Jesse here a name above all Hebrew names, and thus does Providence mock "society."

Friday, April 9, 2010

Porges - Borghese - Bar-Jesse - Bar-yese

Beider's explanation for PORGES :

Jewish women from Prague used numerous hypocoristic forms as given names.
Unlike the case with masculine given names, shortened forms were quite rare, although forms with diminutive suffixes were very common.
Some surmanes coincide with feminine given names :

PURYE (Buria)1573 : Hypocoristic form of Biblical Zipporah (Exodus 2:16)

[Metronymic form : PORJES (Porias, Paris, PORGES, Borges, Borgis)]

In old German sources, the letter G was sometimes used instead of J
(pronounced as english Y after the voyels)

The Purje name is mentioned in B. Bondy-F. Dvorsky "K Historii zidu v Cechach, na Morave a v slensku (906 az 1620)" Prague 1906. (1:362)

Origin of Porges

Porges family in Prague is registered until half of the 17th century as “Purja-Pfefferkorn (on the tombstones) and from the end of 17th century with altered female version of the name “Porit”. This name was preserved in the non-Jewish and non-Hebrew sources given the influence of German pronunciation in the form of “Porges or Porjes, Pories, Porias, Purges, Borges, Borgis, Burges, etc. and remained in this form till today.
....Many Jewish families in Czech lands have traditions of Spanish or Italian descent. Even families like Pollak or Lasch. One of quite typical Jewish surnames was Bondy, which is Bongiorno/Yom tov, in addition to Porges, there have been many Borges.

In Spain Porges/Porjes original name was Borges/Borjes.
Go to www.sephardim.com and search Borges/Borjes.
Borges the great Argentine writer said he was a jewish descendant himself. That's why he wrote the Poem Aleph.

Wednesday, April 7, 2010


Found this on the following Web SIte: NOBLE FAMILIES OF JEWISH ANCESTRY

Aldobrandini, Princes - in the male line a branch of the Borghese family, considered of ancient Jewish origin.

Borghese, Princes - Originally from Germany, becoming Catholics in the late 14th or early 15th centuries. Princes of Sulmona, etc.

Torlonia, converts at the end of the 18th century, ennobled 1794, Patricians 1809, Princes 1814, Dukes 1847. Divided into two lines of Dukes Torlonia and Princes of Civitelli Cesi The junior line became extinct in the male line and was substituted with Borghese, also of Jewish descent (q.v.), acquiring the titles of Prince Torlonia, Prince of Fucino, Canino and Musignano (these last inherited on the extinction of the male line of Bonaparte di Canino) The title of Prince of Civitelli Cesi, however, reverted to the senior line, being attached to a male majorat.


© Guy Stair Sainty

Two related publications, the Semi-Gotha, or Historisch-genealoges-Taschenbuch des gesamted Adels jehuidäischen Ursprunges of 1912 and 1913, and the Semigothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch aristokratisch-jüdischer heiraten of 1914, attempted a comprehensive survey of those families of Jewish ancestry who were members of the titled European nobility (and a handful of non-European royalty or nobility). These were published at a time when the prestige and influence of European Jewry was at its highest and represented pride in their achievements since Jewish emancipation. Unhappily, these rare publications were later to be used by the nazis to identify families and individuals for extermination and many copies of these publications were destroyed both by nazi fanatics and by those Jewish families who had once been proud to have been included.

Birth dates were indicated with the hexagonal Star of David, while a Jewish tomb stone symbol indicated who died in the Jewish faith, and a Cross those who died in the Christian faith. Marriage dates were indicated with two bold rings interlocking if husband and wife both had Jewish blood, while a bold ring with an outline ring indicated whether only one of the partners was of Jewish ancestry. The frontispiece illustration of the 1913 edition was a portrait of Benjamin Disraeli, 1st (and last) Earl of Beaconsfield.

Guy Stair Sainty

Appointments, awards, and decorations:
Guy Sainty has been involved in the world of chivalry and heraldry for many years. He has served as leader of the International Patrons of the Arts of the Vatican Museums, and as one of three consultants
to the Committee on the Orders of Saint John of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Alliance of Orders of Saint John.

Re: Pope Paul V - and the House of Borghese (Guy Stair Sainty))

Hereditary titles could only pass by successin through Catholic marriage; life titles could not pass.
Many papal titles were given to converts, including quite a number to converted Jews - it was the succession thereafter that required legitimate Catholic marriage.

Regarding Papal titles - before 1870 Papal titles were all "territorial", with the exception of the rather strange Papal title of Conte Palatino (which gave the holder the title of Count followed by his family name). The Pope's did not before 1870 grant Princely titles on the name - so all those families listed here who had Princely titles were Princes of somewhere.

After 1870 there were grants of titles of Prince, duke, (a few Marquesses) and Count, but these were on the name "Duke Stacpoole, "Countess Kennedy"; etc, most were hereditary, a few not; all however could only pass to the issue born of legitimate, Catholic marriages.

Each of former Italian states had their own nobiliary systems which the Savoys tried to rationalise. There were two "Lists" (Elenchi),called the "Elenco Ufficiale della Nobilta Italiana" which attempted to compile complete lists of all recognised titles - however one had to apply and some families linked closely to formerly ruling houses refused to do so.

As a general principle all titles followed the original patent - as most of nothern Italy was part of the HRE, naturally the Imperial titles followed the patent and passes to all male line descendants if these was the terms of the original patent. Most Austrian titles, granted by the Viceroy of Milan in the name of the Emperor after 1815, or by the Emperor directly, were also recognised when granted prior to 1866.

All Papal titles were recgnised in Italy - although this did require an administrative process for the recipient to be included on the Elenco - by the terms of the Lateran Treaty of 1929, which theoretically continued to bind the Republic after 1946.

Territorial titles granted with the remainder to males and females, with priority for males, after 1860 were only recgnised for females by specific royal confirmation, despite the original patents. Some of these titles, when granted by the Spanish Viceroys, are considered Spanish titles and these wuld be recognised in Spain according to the original patent - thus sometimes creating tw titles out of ne (the title of Duke of Ferrandina is one such example).



The Borghese Family was established in Siena, Italy in the 1200's from a family of wool merchants to become one of nobility and fame and unrivalled power. Camillo Borghese would eventually become Pope Paul V and complete the Construction of the St Peter's Basillica, The Vatican. To enshrine the Family name forever he has his own name inscribed over the main Portico door : IN HONOREM PRINCIPIS APOST. PAULUS V BURGHESIUS ROMANUS PONT. MAX. AN. MDCXII PONT VII.
Whenever you see the Pope stand outside his window to give Mass or blessings over the gathering crowds you will see the Name above him. The Family Borghese. A large area of Rome lies under the Borghese Name. It is known as The Borghese Gardens and the Villa Borghese.

Villa Borghese is a large landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions. It is the second largest public park in Rome (80 hectares or 148 acres) after that of the Villa Doria Pamphili. The gardens were developed for the Villa Borghese Pinciana ("Borghese villa on the Pincian Hill"), built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa, at the edge of Rome, and to house his art collection.

Berg-Hesse, House of Hesse ? Chatti

Who were the Hessians ? Where did they come from ?
Hesse's earliest recorded ancestors were probably the Chatten or Chatti, a Germanic folk in existence over 2,000 years ago. They, along with the Cherusci, were the masters of Germania before Roman domination. 'Chatti' became 'Hessi', from which originates the state's name. The first recorded entry of a location within Hesse's territory dates from AD 782
The Catti, or Haiti were so called from their headcovering or ' hat.' The form Chatti was used till the third century. In 720 it becomes Hessi.
However, also of interest, in the Garhwal Himalayas of India there is an area known as Janki Chatti, near Jammu and Kashmir.

Bar-ghesius, Bar-Ghesi, Bar-Hesse, Bar-Jesse, Bar-Iyshay (Aramaic)

Bar-Ghesias, Bar-Ghesius, Bar-Ghesi, Bar-Hesse, Bar-Yisay,
Bar-Yishai, Bar-Jesse. (Ben Yishay) Son of Jesse.
Where "Bar" is the Aramaic for "son". Ben, the Hebrew.
Who is the Son of Jesse ? David.
Jesse, Eshai or Yishay, (Hebrew: יִשַׁי, Modern Yishai Tiberian Yīšạy, meaning "God exists" or "God's gift"; Greek: Ἰεσσαί; Latin: Isai, Jesse) is the father of the Biblical David, who became the king of the nation of Israel. His son David is sometimes called simply "Son of Jesse" (ben yishay).
Bar-Iyshay (Aramaic) Son of "I possess" or Yesh (I am) http://net.bible.org/strong.php?id=03448 "I am" = Esse (Latin)

Napolean Bonaparte's Sister Pauline to marry a Prince Borg-Hesse

"During his short stay in that island, he remitted immense sums to France, which were laid out in the purchase of very considerable estates. (She) is looked upon as the richest of the whole family. Since her return she has bought a spledid hotel in Paris, which she has fitted up in a princley style; but she will probably settle in Italy, where she will marry a Prince Borg-hesse."

Google Books "Borg-Hesse"

Bar-Ghesius becomes Bor-ghesius, becomes Borghese

Exempla inscriptionvm latinarvm in vsvm praecipve academicvm‎ - Page 186
Gustav Wilmanns - Foreign Language Study - 1873
... Bar- ghesius ... fuisse Bor- ghesius ...


Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis conditum a Carolo du Fresne: domino ...‎ - Page 450
Bor- ghesius in Nuovi ... bar- ...

Full text of "Annali. Annales" - 2:22pm... nam Gallicanum magistratum fuisse alimentis praepositum Bar- ghesius demonstrayit ...... Haec yero sunt, de quibus Plinius (N. H. XViUt ANNALI 1844. ...


Did Pope Paul V really have the Borghese Family name inscribed at the main portico of the Basillica at St Peters ? Or does it spell something else. Is it nepotism or somthing else? What is the meaning of the word BVRGHESIVS ? Burghesius ? The Roman spelling of Borghese ? After the word PAVLVS the Lettr V indicates the Roman Numeral 5. Is the Letter for the Roman Numeral a V or a U ?

Although the Roman numerals are now written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used I Λ X ⋔ 8 ⊕ for I V X L C M,

If Etruscan, the V can be inverted to A, is the word then BARGHESIAS ? BAR-GHESIAS
(Hebrew - Son of Ghesias) Who is Ghesias ?
Doing a search on Google I can find the following reference to Barghesius -
M. Tullii Ciceronis librorum de re publica quantum superest in ... - Google Books ResultMarcus Tullius Cicero, Marcus Cornelius Fronto - 1846
... quam harum doctrinarum magister eL Barghesias de frag. oov. fast. capitol. part. 1. p. 72.

Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He was member of a wealthy family of the equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.

Cicero is generally perceived to be one of the most versatile minds of ancient Rome. He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary, distinguishing himself as a linguist, translator, and philosopher. An impressive orator and successful lawyer, Cicero probably thought his political career was his most important achievement.

Full text of "Codices palatini latini Bibliothecae Vaticanae ... - 2:11pmCaesar Baronias, „ Lndoaicas Torres, Scipio Barghesias, qao praeside res bibliothecae pla- , rimom incrementi sampsere, et Scipio Cobellatias, ...

Burghesius, The House of Borghese

Research into the origins of the Borghese Family. Where did they come from ?
According to Wikipedia, Borghese is the surname of a family of Italian noble and papal background, originating as the Borghese or Borghesi in Siena, where they came to prominence in the 13th century holding offices under the commune. The head of the family, Marcantonio I, moved to Rome in the 16th century and there, following the election (1605) of his son Camillo Borghese as Pope Paul V who was an unabashed nepotist, they rose in power and wealth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Borghese

Various spellings of the Borghese Family name.
Borghese, Borghesi, Burghesius, Bvrghesius, Bar-Giizis, Burgh-esius, Burgess, Borges, Borg-esi, Borg-hesse, Borgh-esse, Burgh-esse, Bar-hesse, Burg-Hesse, Bur-Ghese, Bar-Ghese, Bar-Jesse, Borghe, Borghi, Borgia, Porges, Porghese, Porghes, etc...